Architecture today

Years then 1970s, while the Modernism and Postmodernism growing like an architectural style, some architects and non-architects found the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The Design Methodology Movement involving people such as Christopher Alexander started searching for more people-oriented designs. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioral, environmental, and social sciences were done and started informing the design process.
As many other concerns began to be recognized and the complexity of buildings began to increase (in terms of aspects such as structural systems, services, energy and technologies), architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture today usually requires a team of specialist professionals, with the architect being one of many, although usually the team leader. It is now widely expected that tomorrows architects will integrate sustainable principles into their projects.

Moving the issues of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is one of most significant recent developments in the architecture profession. Sustainability in architecture was pioneered in the 1970s by architects such as Ian McHarg in the US and Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand. The acceleration in numbers of buildings which seek to meet green building sustainable design principles is inline with a growing world-wide awareness of the risks and implications of accelerating man-made climate change.

The American Institute of Architects acknowledges that half of today's global warming greenhouse gas emissions come from Buildings - more than Transportation or Industry, and that architects are chiefly responsible. AIA states that immediate action by the building sector is essential to avoid hazardous man-made climate change. They have an "Architecture 2030" plan to reduce new building energy consumption by 90% in 2030, and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2035. Passive solar building design has been demonstrating essential elements of 70% to 90% energy consumption reduction in roughly 300,000 buildings since the 1978 U.S. Solar Energy Tax Incentives. Many of these basic building envelope energy efficiency features can be added at little-or-no additional net cost during new construction. Newer zero energy buildings have reduced net annual energy consumption, producing excess energy and selling it back to the grid-connected power company during moderate months. They are receiving significant publicity. President George Bushs 2006 Solar America Initiative expects architects and builders to actively design and construct new zero energy buildings by 2015. The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 funded the new Solar Air Conditioning Research and Development Program, which should develop and demonstrate multiple new technology innovations and mass production economies of scale. Significant construction industry-wide re-education will be required very soon. A comprehensive compilation of information on passive solar architecture and zero energy building is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Building Technology group "Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings Tenth International Conference" on December 2007.

The term 'Architecture'

The word "architecture" comes from the Latin, "architectura" and ultimately from Greek,"arkitekton". The term can be used to connote the implied architecture of mathematics or of abstract things such as music, the apparent architecture of natural things, such as geological formations or the structure of biological cells, or explicitly planned architectures of human-made things such as software, computers, enterprises, and databases, in addition to buildings...

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History of Architecture

Early human settlements were mostly rural. Due to a surplus in production the economy began to expand resulting in urbanization thus creating urban areas which grew and evolved very rapidly in some cases. In many ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians', architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, while in other ancient cultures such as Persia architecture and urban planning was used to exemplify the power of the state...

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